漫画村はなぜつぶれないのか? 高校生が理解できるレベルまで下げて解説。

flat-です。普段はデュエルマスターズというカードゲームについての動画をYouTube上にアップしながらブログもちょっとだけやってるって人です。今回はデュエマ全く関係なしで漫画村についての解説を書きます。

元々なんで漫画村って潰れる潰れる言われて潰れないんだろうと思ってたんですけど、先ほどTwitterみてたら「フジイユウジ::ドットネット」というブログでそれについての解説記事が掲載されているとの情報が入り、「わかりやすい!」みたいなコメントも多数あったのでのぞいてきました。結論から言うと2%ぐらいしか理解できなかったです。多分僕自身の学力の問題ですが、専門用語が飛び交って「漫画村は上手いこと逃げてる」ぐらいしかわかりませんでした。

で、折角だから調べて読んでみようとおもってわからない単語を調べ翻訳しながら読み進めてみました。そこでやっとフジイさんの説明のわかりやすさを理解しました。フジイさんすいませんでした。

それで僕みたいにフジイさんの記事みてもわからない人が少しでも理解してもらえるように記事を書こうと。そういう前語りでした。以降本編です。



漫画村の仕組み。

Q、漫画村ってどうやって金儲けしてるの?
A、漫画村は閲覧者からの広告収入で運営されています。
YouTubeでも動画が始まる前に5~15秒ぐらいの広告がながれてますが、web上でも画面のどこかしらに広告が載ってます。それにより漫画村は莫大な収益を得ています。このお金は反社会的な組織に回ってる可能性もあり、現在重大な課題となっています。

 

Q、漫画村の運営してる人ってなんで捕まらないの?
A、海外で運営しているからです。漫画村の運営者たちは「海外は日本の法律が届かないから違法ではない」といっていますが、そんなことありません。海外にいても違法性が問えるとの法律家の見解があります。
じゃあ何故捕まらないのかですが、捜査が進まず、犯罪の証拠を確認できないからです。
これは漫画村がどうやって運営してるかにもつながりますが、漫画村は本体のサーバー以外にClowdFlareという会社によって作成されたCDNによるコピーが死ぬほどあります。
CDNって何?って話になると思うんですが、CDNは超簡単に言うとファイルをコピー、ダウンロードするサービスのことです。
ファイル(画像やZIPファイルなど)を事前に世界各地でコピーしておき、実際にファイルをコピーしようとする人が現れたらアクセス元からみて距離的に一番近い場所にあるサーバーを自動で選択し、そこからファイルをダウンロードさせるというサービスのことです。このサービスのおかげでファイルのダウンロードにかかる遅延を軽減することができます。

例を挙げると・・・
CDNを利用しない場合
日本からアメリカにある企業のWEBサイトからファイルをダウンロードしようとするとアメリカサーバーからダウンロードすることになるため遅延が発生します。

 

CDNを利用した場合
アメリカのファイルを事前に日本サーバーにコピーしておくことで、日本からアメリカの企業のファイルをダウンロードする際に日本サーバーからダウンロードできるようになるため、遅延が少なくなります。

というわけで本来CDNは画期的なサービスなはずなのですが、漫画村はこれを使い世界各地にコピーを作ることで本体サイトを上手いこと隠しているわけです。で、そのCDNにファイルをコピーさせているのがどこかというと防弾ホスティング(通称BPHS)になります。ここが漫画村本体もしくは同組織です。で、今度はBPHSって何?ってなると思うんですが、これはあらゆる捜査/調査を全てガン無視できるレンタルサーバーのことです。レンタルサーバーはそのままの意味。ブロガーの人は聞きなじみあると思いますが我々パンピーはブログなどを作ろうとしたときにサーバーを借りることになります。それがレンタルサーバーです。日本だと「ロリポップ」や「エックスサーバー」などがレンタルサーバーに該当します。

なんでBPHSとかいうレンタルサーバーは捜査や調査を無視できんの?って話になりますが、BPHSはウクライナなどの一定の税金が軽減、免除されている地域にあります。このような国や地域をタックスヘイヴンというのですが、これは自国を繁栄させるために富裕層に住んでもらおうという策略です。富裕層は国内でお金いっぱい使ってくれるでしょうから税金抑えてでもその価値があるというわけですね。
で、こういった国は意図的にデータ開示の法律が緩く、捜査や調査がし辛くなっています。BPHSにはもってこいですね。まぁデータ開示の法律しっかり整備してしまうと他国からの捜査協力に応じないといけなくなってしまうわけで、そんなことしようもんなら他の富裕層が「俺ら捕まりたくないから他国いくわ」とか言って離れちゃいますから世の中世知辛いですね。

データ開示の法律がガバガバなところに本拠地があるため捜査が困難であり、漫画村を運営してる人を逮捕するのは極めて難しいです。




Q、漫画村のサイトを潰す方法はないの?
A、DMCAテイクダウンという方法があります。これ最近Twitterで有名人のアカウント凍結しまくったアレです。これは米国で成立した法律「デジタルミレニアム著作権法(通称DMCA)」が元になっています。米国では著作権侵害に対して故意・過失がなくても罰せられる「無過失責任制」を取っているのですが、そんなん逮捕者爆発するにきまってるじゃないですか。

そこで一定の要件を備えた著作権侵害主張の通知を受けた際に、詳しい調査をする前に「削除しろ」と警告をだし、ここで削除したら罪に問われなくなるという規定を作りました。これを「ノーティス・アンド・テイクダウン」といいます。一時期Twitterのいたずらで特定の人に絞って報告しまくったらTwitterアカウント凍結されたってのはこれのせいです。因みに余談ですが、凍結された発信者は異議申し立てを行うことができ、反論がなければ復活することができます。

DMCAで規定したノーティス・アンド・テイクダウン、略してDMCAテイクダウンです。
これを使い、漫画村にクレーム送りまくればDMCAテイクダウンにより削除させることができるんじゃないの?ってのがあるんですが、残念ながら厳しいのが現状です。

流れとしてはクレームをまず米国のClowdFlare(CDNことファイルのコピーを扱っている会社)に報告します。するとClowdFlare側は「俺らはコピーを扱ってるだけだからクレームは本体に転送しておく」といいます。正直そのコピー消してくれれば解決なんだけど消さない当たりこのClowdFlareもなかなかグレーなとこありますよね。

そこで本体であるBPHS(レンタルサーバーのことね)にクレームが届くわけですが、そこは米国ではなく、別の国です。ということで「米国企業じゃないのでDMCAテイクダウンを守る義務はありませーんwwwww」といってガン無視されます。はいクソ。

そこで現在議論されているのが、サイトブロッキング。簡単に言うと一般ユーザーを漫画村にアクセスできなくしてしまおうというものです。これについてですが口で言うのは簡単ですが憲法上の課題があります。憲法には通信の秘密というのがあり、法改正無しでこれを強行突破してアクセス禁止させると憲法が軽視されていると後々に大きな問題を残してしまいかねないわけです。

しかもその割に対して効果がないのではないかといわれています。サイトブロッキングは基本的にドメイン(www.なんとか.jp 的なやつ。)に対して行われます。ハッキリ言うとドメインなんかいくつでも作れます。その中のいくつか潰したところで新しいの出てきて終了です。

というわけでサイトブロッキングも焼け石に水です

というわけで以上、漫画村がなぜつぶれないのかでした。参考にした記事はこちら

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